Maternal HPA-1a antibody level and its role in predicting the severity of Fetal/Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia: a systematic review
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Caucasians, fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is most commonly due to maternal HPA-1a antibodies. HPA-1a typing followed by screening for anti-HPA-1a antibodies in HPA-1bb women may identify first pregnancies at risk. Our goal was to review results from previous published studies to examine whether the maternal antibody level to HPA-1a could be used to identify high-risk pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The studies included were categorized by recruitment strategies: screening of unselected pregnancies or samples analyzed from known or suspected FNAIT patients. RESULTS: Three prospective studies reported results from screening programmes, and 10 retrospective studies focused on suspected cases of FNAIT. In 8 studies samples for antibody measurement, performed by the monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen (MAIPA) assay, and samples for determining fetal/neonatal platelet count were collected simultaneously. In these 8 studies, the maternal antibody level correlated with the risk of severe thrombocytopenia. The prospective studies reported high negative predictive values (88-95%), which would allow for the use of maternal anti-HPA-1a antibody level as a predictive tool in a screening setting, in order to identify cases at low risk for FNAIT. However, due to low positive predictive values reported in prospective as well as retrospective studies (54-97%), the maternal antibody level is less suited for the final diagnosis and for guiding antenatal treatment. CONCLUSION: HPA-1a antibody level has the potential to predict the severity of FNAIT.
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