Trochleoplasty provides good clinical outcomes and an acceptable complication profile in both short and long-term follow-up
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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report on the global distribution and clinical outcomes of published articles related to trochleoplasty. METHODS: The online databases OVID Medline, OVID EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the literature assessing trochleoplasty performed for lateral patellofemoral instability (LPI). Study data were abstracted looking at global trends in the literature, as well as clinical and patient-reported outcomes following this technique. RESULTS: For the assessment of global distribution, 29 studies including 998 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies were conducted in Europe (93%) and most used an open thin flap technique (52%). For the secondary analysis of clinical outcomes, 21 studies were included with significant heterogeneity in patient selection, reporting on the degree of trochlear dysplasia, and patient-reported outcomes. All trochleoplasty techniques showed statistically significant improvement in clinical outcomes at average 50 months (range 3-228 months) post-operative, with most patients being satisfied with their procedure. Re-dislocation and complication rates were low. CONCLUSIONS: European centers have published majority of data on trochleoplasty surgery, which has been shown to be an acceptable procedure for patients with high-grade trochlear dysplasia and LPI. Trochleoplasty has demonstrated good clinical outcomes, a low re-dislocation rate, and an acceptable complication profile in both short and long-term follow-up. This study highlights the difficulty in reporting outcomes in this group of patients due to heterogeneity in patient selection, grading of trochlear dysplasia, and the lack of disease-specific outcome measures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
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