Outcomes following neonatal portal vein thrombosis: A descriptive, single-center study and review of anticoagulant therapy Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • BACKGROUND: Neonatal portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is uncommon with potentially serious complications that may manifest in infancy and childhood. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of our study was to describe the short-term and long-term outcomes of neonatal PVT. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted from 2008 to 2016 of neonates diagnosed with PVT. A systematic review was also performed from 2000 to 2018 to evaluate anticoagulant therapy (ACT) in neonatal PVT. RESULTS: Forty-four premature and 30 term infants (mean gestational age 30.7 vs 39.1 weeks, respectively) had PVT. Sixty-eight involved the left portal vein, one involved only the main portal vein, and 5 involved ≥1 vein. PVT was catheter associated in 46 (62%); none of the 7 neonates tested had thrombophilia. Of 74 neonates, 19 (26%) received ACT and 55 (74%) were untreated. The mean follow-up duration was 16.6 months (SD = 17.62; range, 0-89.6); 59.5% were followed for ≥6 months. On last ultrasound examination, thrombus resolution was documented in treated (ACT; n = 19) and nontreated (n = 55) neonates: 12 (63%) versus 32 (58%) with complete resolution, 1 (5%) versus 6 (11%) partial, 0 versus 1 (2%) extension, and 6 (32%) versus 16 (29%) had nonprogressive lesions, respectively. Seventy-one (96%) had no complications. Seventy-one articles met inclusion criteria for the systematic review and 19 were retained for analysis after assessment. CONCLUSIONS: PVT resolution rate was similar to previous reports. Although a low complication rate was detected, longer follow-up is necessary to determine the need for early treatment and the precise incidence of outcomes such as portal hypertension.

publication date

  • April 2019