Mechanisms of cytosolic targeting of matrix metalloproteinase-2
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Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is best understood for its biological actions outside the cell. However, MMP-2 also localizes to intracellular compartments and the cytosol where it has several substrates, including troponin I (TnI). Despite a growing list of cytosolic substrates, we currently do not know the mechanism(s) that give rise to the equilibrium between intracellular and secreted MMP-2 moieties. Therefore, we explored how cells achieve the unique distribution of this protease. Our data show that endogenous MMP-2 targets inefficiently to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and shows significant amounts in the cytosol. Transfection of canonical MMP-2 essentially reproduces this targeting pattern, suggesting it is the quality of the MMP-2 signal sequence that predominantly determines MMP-2 targeting. However, we also found that human cardiomyocytes express an MMP-2 splice variant which entirely lacks the signal sequence. Like the fraction of ER-excluded, full-length MMP-2, this variant MMP-2 is restricted to the cytosol and specifically enhances TnI cleavage upon hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in cardiomyocytes. Together, our findings describe for the first time a set of mechanisms that cells utilize to equilibrate MMP-2 both in the extracellular milieu and intracellular, cytosolic locations. Our results also suggest approaches to specifically investigate the overlooked intracellular biology of MMP-2.
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