Management of Bleeding in Patients with Advanced Cancer
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Bleeding occurs in up to 10% of patients with advanced cancer. It can present in many different ways. This article provides a qualitative review of treatment options available to manage visible bleeding. Local modalities, such as hemostatic agents and dressings, radiotherapy, endoscopic ligation and coagulation, and transcutaneous arterial embolization, are reviewed in the context of advanced cancer, as are systemic treatments such as vitamin K, vasopressin/desmopressin, octreotide/somatostatin, antifibrinolytic agents (tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid), and blood products. Considerations at the end of life are described.
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