Does Imaging Before Percutaneous Drain Removal Affect Rates of Intra-abdominal Abscess Recurrence?
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BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal abscesses account for a large proportion of surgical complications and carry high mortality if not promptly controlled. Image-guided percutaneous drainage is standard of care. The objective of the study was to identify factors that predict abscess recurrence after percutaneous drain (PD) removal and determine if imaging before drain removal effects recurrence. METHODS: A consecutive multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of all patients who underwent PD insertion for abscesses between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015, was performed. Patient characteristics, PD details, and abscess recurrence were assessed. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-eight patients underwent PD insertion for spontaneous or postoperative abscesses, and overall abscess recurrence was 21%. Drains remained in situ for a median of 21.5 d (interquartile range: 9-42 d) with antibiotics used in 91% of cases. Forty-seven patients (25%) had a sinogram before PD removal, while 22% had computed tomography (CT) scans and 11% had ultrasounds. Hierarchical multivariable regression analysis showed that imaging before PD removal was associated with a 66% reduction in the odds of abscess recurrence (OR 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.70; P = 0.006). Sinogram use was associated with an 86% reduction in the odds of recurrence (OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.39; P = 0.002) and ultrasound use was associated with a 78% reduction in the odds of recurrence (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.02-0.76; P = 0.044) while CT use was not associated with a significant reduction in recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Imaging before PD removal is associated with a reduction in the rates of abscess recurrence and requirement for additional drainage procedures or surgery. In addition, CT is not superior to ultrasound or sinograms as an imaging modality.
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