Comparison of Frequency of Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Versus Without Coronary Heart Disease and Without Atrial Fibrillation
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Recent trials of antithrombotic therapy in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have demonstrated substantial reductions in ischemic stroke. Our aim was to examine ischemic stroke risk in patients with CAD and to identify those at highest risk. We examined ischemic stroke risk in patients without atrial fibrillation who underwent coronary angiography between 2004 and 2012. Patients were stratified according to presence or absence of CAD and further stratified by extent of CAD (0 vessel disease [VD], 1 VD, 2 VD, 3 VD, and diffuse VD). End points were composites of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and systemic embolism, as well as major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, plus ischemic stroke, TIA, and systemic embolism. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated. A total of 68,829 patients were included, 25,032 had 0 VD, 4,736 had diffuse VD, 18,471 had 1 VD, 10,588 had 2 VD, and 10,002 had 3 VD. Median follow-up was 4.0 years. CAD extent was associated with an increased risk of stroke, TIA, and systemic embolism (1 VD: adjusted IRR 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90 to 1.16; diffuse VD: adjusted IRR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.47; 2 VD: adjusted IRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.45; 3 VD: adjusted IRR 1.37, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.55) compared with patients with 0 VD. Presence and extent of CAD were also associated with MACCE. In conclusion, CAD is associated with an increased risk of stroke, TIA, and systemic embolism and MACCE in patients without atrial fibrillation, and patients with coronary multi-VD are at highest risk and may be candidates for treatment strategies aiming at reducing ischemic stroke incidence.
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