The cardiovascular outcomes for people using anticoagulation strategies (NCT01776424) trial randomized 27,395 patients with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease (PAD) to receive rivaroxaban 5 mg twice-daily alone, the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice-daily and aspirin 100 mg daily, or aspirin 100 mg daily alone. The combination arm resulted in a 24% reduction in the primary end point of cardiovascular death, stroke or myocardial infarction, and an 18% reduction in mortality. Rivaroxaban alone did not produce any additional benefit compared with aspirin. The combination therapy also reduced major adverse limb events, including amputation, in patients with PAD. Based on these results, the addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin is expected to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with stable coronary or PAD.