Myopathies Related to Glycogen Metabolism Disorders
- Additional Document Info
- View All
Most of the glycogen metabolism disorders that affect skeletal muscle involve enzymes in glycogenolysis (myophosphorylase (PYGM), glycogen debranching enzyme (AGL), phosphorylase b kinase (PHKB)) and glycolysis (phosphofructokinase (PFK), phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM2), aldolase A (ALDOA), β-enolase (ENO3)); however, 3 involve glycogen synthesis (glycogenin-1 (GYG1), glycogen synthase (GSE), and branching enzyme (GBE1)). Many present with exercise-induced cramps and rhabdomyolysis with higher-intensity exercise (i.e., PYGM, PFK, PGAM2), yet others present with muscle atrophy and weakness (GYG1, AGL, GBE1). A failure of serum lactate to rise with exercise with an exaggerated ammonia response is a common, but not invariant, finding. The serum creatine kinase (CK) is often elevated in the myopathic forms and in PYGM deficiency, but can be normal and increase only with rhabdomyolysis (PGAM2, PFK, ENO3). Therapy for glycogen storage diseases that result in exercise-induced symptoms includes lifestyle adaptation and carefully titrated exercise. Immediate pre-exercise carbohydrate improves symptoms in the glycogenolytic defects (i.e., PYGM), but can exacerbate symptoms in glycolytic defects (i.e., PFK). Creatine monohydrate in low dose may provide a mild benefit in PYGM mutations.
has subject area