Respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization and incurred morbidities the season after prophylaxis
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Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence and incurred morbidities of Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related hospitalization (RSVH), the season following completion of prophylaxis. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of all infants enrolled in a prophylaxis clinic in one institution during the 2009 to 2014 RSV seasons. RSV infection was identified by Diseases codes and confirmed by RSV-positivity. Data were classified into five groups based on indications for prophylaxis. The incidence of RSVH was calculated. For each subgroup, differences in characteristics between children with and without RSVH were analyzed by independent t test or chi-square test. Results: During five RSV seasons, 827 infants were enrolled. RSVH incidence the season following prophylaxis was 2.1% (n=17/827). Children with chronic lung disease (CLD) had the highest RSVH incidence (7.7%; n=4/52) followed by preterms 33 to 35 weeks gestation (2.5%; n=4/162), those with complex medical disorders (2.2%; n=3/135), those with congenital heart disease (1.5%; n=1/66) and preterms less than or equal to 32 weeks gestation (1.2%; n=5/412). There was no statistically significant association between indications for prophylaxis and RSVH (Fisher exact test, P=0.060). The odds of RSVH were 4.9 times greater (odds ratio [OR]=4.9; 95% CI: 1.53, 15.55; P=0.007) in CLD compared to those without CLD. The median length of RSVH stay was 4 days; 58.8% (n=10/17) required oxygen (median 1 day); 29.4% (n=5/17) required intensive care. Conclusions: Infants with CLD are at highest risk for RSVH in the season postprophylaxis and may merit palivizumab for more than two seasons dependent on disease severity. However, larger prospective studies are necessary to confirm the findings before embarking on a strategy of providing prophylaxis for a third RSV season.
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