Characterization of cadmium and calcium fluxes along the gut, malpighian tubules, and anal papillae of the dipteran Chironomus riparius
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Chironomids are often one of the dominant organisms in significantly polluted freshwater. Many invertebrate studies have characterized whole-organism mechanisms of toxicity, for example, assessing cadmium (Cd) uptake via calcium (Ca) channels. However, with the use of the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and an innovative Cd-selective microelectrode, we analyze this relationship at the organ level using a realistic concentration of Cd and Ca in the hemolymph (blood). Generally, Cd fluxes follow the same directional pattern as Ca, although Ca fluxes are approximately 5 times higher than those of Cd. These results correlate well with previous studies indicating that chironomids have a higher affinity for Ca over Cd, which affords them tolerance to Cd toxicity. When saline Ca concentration was increased to 10 times physiological levels, Cd fluxes from the gut lumen into the cells of the midgut regions were reduced by 50 to 80%. Transport of Cd from hemolymph to tissue for the posterior midgut, Malpighian tubule, and proximal ceca was also reduced by approximately 50%. The present results indicate that Cd fluxes into or across the gut and Malpighian tubules are reduced by high Ca, suggesting that Cd may be transported in some cells by similar mechanisms. However, Cd was actively excreted at the anal papillae after a 48-h waterborne exposure to Cd, but this process was independent of Ca and instead may involve a P-glycoprotein-related pump to detoxify Cd. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:2542-2549. © 2018 SETAC.
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