Mineral excretion in premature infants receiving various diuretic therapies
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The association of various diuretic therapies with the renal handling of minerals, important factors in the development of nephrocalcinosis and osteopenia, was studied in low birth weight infants. Twenty-four-hour urine specimens (n = 65) were collected from 30 patients who were treated with (1) furosemide with or without spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (2) spironolactone with hydrochlorothiazide, (3) spironolactone alone, or (4) no diuretic (control; i.e., after diuretic). Hypercalciuria (urinary calcium greater than or equal to 0.15 mmol/kg/day) was observed in all but the control group. Covariate analysis demonstrated a significant effect of sodium, calcium, and vitamin D intakes (p less than 0.01) and sodium excretion (p less than 0.05) on urinary calcium excretion. Treatment with any of these diuretics in neonates may be associated with abnormal renal losses of calcium, sodium, chloride, and potassium. From a nutritional perspective, neonates requiring long-term diuretic therapy thereby require special consideration, including monitoring of mineral excretion and renal ultrasonography.
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