Patients with small-vessel vasculitides have the highest mortality among systemic autoimmune diseases patients treated in intensive care unit: A retrospective study with 5-year follow-up
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PURPOSE: Systemic autoimmune diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with dysfunction of multiple organs and unpredictable course. Complicated management and treatment become even more challenging when patients require critical care. This study aims to compare outcomes of small-vessel vasculitides (SVV) and other systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective, observational study conducted in the ICU of Allergy and Immunology Department at the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland, between years 2001-2014, with 5-years follow-up and no lost to follow-up patients. RESULTS: 74 patients with autoimmune diseases were enrolled in the study - 23 with SVV and 51 with SAD. Patients in the SVV group achieved higher scores in APACHE II and III SAPS II and SOFA at ICU admission. The SVV patients required renal replacement techniques, blood products transfusion and immunosuppressive treatment more often. SVV patients had higher ICU mortality (60.9% vs. 35.3%, p = .04), however after discharge from ICU, in long term follow-up (1 year and 5 years) mortality was similar in both studied groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among systemic autoimmune diseases small vessel vasculitides appear to be associated with the highest ICU mortality, higher requirement for advanced procedures and aggressive immunosuppressive therapy.
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