- We report four patients with a protracted history of acute pancreatitis complicated by infected pseudocysts or abscesses. Ultrasonography showed that each patient had cholelithiasis. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy was performed resulting in the release of stones, gravel, or pus in all four cases. Three of the patients had successful percutaneous abscess drainage, and one patient was drained surgically. The abscesses all resolved, but one patient died suddenly of acute pulmonary embolism. The other three patients are well. We recommend this combined approach to pancreatic abscess drainage because, if there is obstruction to the flow of pancreatic juice at the ampulla of Vater, it is likely that the pancreatitis and abscess will fail to resolve.