Mapping of Cerebral Oxygen Extraction Fraction Changes with Susceptibility-weighted Phase Imaging
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PURPOSE: To develop a map to detect changes in oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) utilizing susceptibility-weighted (SW) phase images and to correlate such changes in OEF with those in cerebral blood flow (CBF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Eight healthy volunteers (mean age ± standard deviation, 29.8 years ± 4.6) were included in the study. Subjects were evaluated by using SW imaging, and the change in OEF was calculated by subtracting the image at baseline from one of the images obtained during six different conditions, including two at resting state, three different types of respiratory challenges, and one drug challenge with acetazolamide. Arterial spin labeling was carried out to measure CBF, while SW imaging was used to generate maps of change in OEF in response to a given condition. Statistical tests included one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett multiple comparisons to compare among the six conditions the magnitude of change from baseline for both OEF and CBF, by using the OEF change at resting state (resting 1) as the control. RESULTS: Hyperventilation caused a statistically significant decrease in CBF (-29.3%, P < .001) and an increase in OEF (+5.2%, P < .001) compared with the control, resting 1 (+2.2%, -0.7%, respectively). Acetazolamide caused a significant increase in CBF (+39.7%, P < .001) and a decrease in OEF (-3.4%, P = .040). Carbogen also induced a CBF increase (+16.2%); however, the change was not significant (P = .090), even though OEF decreased significantly (-4.2%, P = .003). Oxygen administration resulted in a significant CBF decrease (-27.2%, P < .001), whereas OEF showed no significant difference (-0.6%, P > .99). CONCLUSION: Maps of changes in OEF generated from SW phase images revealed changes in OEF corresponding to anticipated changes in CBF induced by various conditions; SW phase imaging might, in the future, be applied to evaluate cerebrovascular and other cerebral disorders in which changes in oxygen metabolism are important for planning therapeutic strategies.
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