Combined Solid State NMR and X-ray Diffraction Investigation of the Local Structure of the Five-Coordinate Silicon in Fluoride-Containing As-Synthesized STF Zeolite
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The local structure of the [SiO(4/2)F]- unit in fluoride-containing as-synthesized STF zeolite has been experimentally determined by a combination of solid-state NMR and microcrystal X-ray diffraction to be very close to trigonal bipyramidal. Because the fluoride ions are disordered over two sites, the resulting local structure of the [SiO(4/2)F]- unit from a conventional XRD refinement is an average between tetrahedral SiO(4/2) and five-coordinate [[SiO(4/2)F]-, giving an apparent F-Si distance longer than expected. The correct F-Si distance was determined by slow spinning MAS and fast spinning (19)F/(29)Si CP and REDOR solid-state NMR experiments and found to be between 1.72 and 1.79 A. In light of this, the X-ray structure was re-refined, including the disorder at Si3. The resulting local structure of the [SiO(4/2)F]- unit was very close to trigonal bipyramidal with a F-Si distance of 1.744 (6) A, in agreement with the NMR results and the prediction of Density Functional Theory calculations. In addition, further evidence for the existence of a covalent F-Si bond is provided by a (19)F-->(29)Si refocused INEPT experiment. The resonance for the five-coordinate species at -147.5 ppm in the (29)Si spectrum is a doublet due to the (19)F/(29)Si J-coupling of 165 Hz. The peaks in this doublet have remarkably different effective chemical shift anisotropies due to the interplay of the CSA, dipolar coupling, and J-coupling tensors. The distortions from tetrahedral geometry of the neighboring silicon atoms to the five-coordinate Si3 atom are manifested in increased delta(aniso) values. This information, along with F-Si distances measured by (19)F-->(29)Si CP experiments, makes it possible to assign half of the (29)Si resonances to unique tetrahedral sites. As well as determining the local geometry of the [SiO(4/2)F]- unit, the work presented here demonstrates the complementarity of the solid-state NMR and X-ray diffraction techniques and the advantages of using them together.
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