Role of KRAS and EGFR As Biomarkers of Response to Erlotinib in National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group Study BR.21
- Additional Document Info
- View All
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of KRAS and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genotype on the response to erlotinib treatment in the BR.21, placebo-controlled trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 206 tumors for KRAS mutation, 204 tumors for EGFR mutation, and 159 tumors for EGFR gene copy by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We reanalyzed EGFR deletion/mutation using two highly sensitive techniques that detect abnormalities in samples with 5% to 10% tumor cellularity. KRAS mutation was analyzed by direct sequencing. RESULTS: Thirty patients (15%) had KRAS mutations, 34 (17%) had EGFR exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R mutations, and 61 (38%) had high EGFR gene copy (FISH positive). Response rates were 10% for wild-type and 5% for mutant KRAS (P = .69), 7% for wild-type and 27% for mutant EGFR (P = .03), and 5% for EGFR FISH-negative and 21% for FISH-positive patients (P = .02). Significant survival benefit from erlotinib therapy was observed for patients with wild-type KRAS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.69, P = .03) and EGFR FISH positivity (HR = 0.43, P = .004) but not for patients with mutant KRAS (HR = 1.67, P = .31), wild-type EGFR (HR = 0.74, P = .09), mutant EGFR (HR = 0.55, P = .12), and EGFR FISH negativity (HR = 0.80, P = .35). In multivariate analysis, only EGFR FISH-positive status was prognostic for poorer survival (P = .025) and predictive of differential survival benefit from erlotinib (P = .005). CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations and high copy number are predictive of response to erlotinib. EGFR FISH is the strongest prognostic marker and a significant predictive marker of differential survival benefit from erlotinib.
has subject area