Amount and Socio-Ecological Correlates of Exercise in Men and Women at Cardiac Rehabilitation Completion
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OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe (1) the amount of physical activity (PA) in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) graduates by sex, and (2) the correlates of their PA. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomized trial was undertaken. Graduates were recruited from three CR programs. Participants completed a questionnaire, which assessed constructs from the socio-ecological model (i.e., individual-level, social- and physical-environmental levels). Physical activity was measured objectively using an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Multilevel modeling was performed. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-five patients consented, of which 200 (78.4%) completed the survey and provided valid accelerometer data. Participants self-reported engaging in a mean ± standard deviation of 184.51 ± 129.10 min of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) per week (with men engaging in more than women, P < 0.05). Accelerometer data revealed participants engaged in 169.65 ± 136.49 mins of MVPA per week, with 43 (25.1%) meeting recommendations. In the mixed models, the socio-ecological correlate significantly related to greater self-reported MVPA was self-regulation (P = 0.01); the correlate of accelerometer-derived MVPA was neighborhood aesthetics (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-quarter of CR program completers are achieving MVPA recommendations, although two-thirds perceive they are. The CR programs should exploit accelerometry and promote self-regulation skills, namely, self-monitoring, goal-setting, positive reinforcement, time management, and relapse prevention. Patients should be encouraged to exercise in pleasing locations.
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