Group analysis identifies differentially elevated biomarkers with distinct outcomes for advanced acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery
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AIM: To investigate early postoperative biomarkers for risk discrimination of advanced acute kidney injury (AKI). MATERIALS & METHODS: Postoperative plasma biomarkers including NGAL, h-FABP, CK-MB, hsTNT, NT-proBNP, IL-6, IL-10 and VEGF were analyzed using group-based method among 426 patients with AKI after cardiac surgery. RESULTS: Six patient groups with distinct biomarker patterns were identified. Individual biomarker displayed significant difference across the groups. The groups showed better discrimination for advanced AKI than any single biomarker either with or without adjusting for clinical variables. Average concentration of a single biomarker within each group, mortality and risk of a secondary outcome all demonstrated an approximately U-shaped relationship with proportion of advanced AKI within each group. CONCLUSION: The group-based analysis revealed that the order of the patient groups with an increasing likelihood of advanced AKI had a nonlinear relationship with average concentration of an individual biomarker, mortality and risk of other outcomes.
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