Kidney-Failure Risk Projection for the Living Kidney-Donor Candidate Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • BACKGROUND: Evaluation of candidates to serve as living kidney donors relies on screening for individual risk factors for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). To support an empirical approach to donor selection, we developed a tool that simultaneously incorporates multiple health characteristics to estimate a person's probable long-term risk of ESRD if that person does not donate a kidney. METHODS: We used risk associations from a meta-analysis of seven general population cohorts, calibrated to the population-level incidence of ESRD and mortality in the United States, to project the estimated long-term incidence of ESRD among persons who do not donate a kidney, according to 10 demographic and health characteristics. We then compared 15-year projections with the observed risk among 52,998 living kidney donors in the United States. RESULTS: A total of 4,933,314 participants from seven cohorts were followed for a median of 4 to 16 years. For a 40-year-old person with health characteristics that were similar to those of age-matched kidney donors, the 15-year projections of the risk of ESRD in the absence of donation varied according to race and sex; the risk was 0.24% among black men, 0.15% among black women, 0.06% among white men, and 0.04% among white women. Risk projections were higher in the presence of a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher albuminuria, hypertension, current or former smoking, diabetes, and obesity. In the model-based lifetime projections, the risk of ESRD was highest among persons in the youngest age group, particularly among young blacks. The 15-year observed risks after donation among kidney donors in the United States were 3.5 to 5.3 times as high as the projected risks in the absence of donation. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple demographic and health characteristics may be used together to estimate the projected long-term risk of ESRD among living kidney-donor candidates and to inform acceptance criteria for kidney donors. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others.).

authors

  • Grams, Morgan E
  • Sang, Yingying
  • Levey, Andrew S
  • Matsushita, Kunihiro
  • Ballew, Shoshana
  • Chang, Alex R
  • Chow, Eric KH
  • Kasiske, Bertram L
  • Kovesdy, Csaba P
  • Nadkarni, Girish N
  • Shalev, Varda
  • Segev, Dorry L
  • Coresh, Josef
  • Lentine, Krista L
  • Garg, Amit

publication date

  • February 4, 2016