Secular trends in antihyperglycaemic medication prescriptions in older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: 2004-2013
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AIM: To examine how antihyperglycaemic medications were prescribed to older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease over the last decade. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of 144 252 older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or receiving chronic dialysis) in Ontario, Canada. In each study quarter (3-month intervals from 1 April 2004 until 31 March 2013) we studied the proportion of treated and newly treated patients prescribed insulin, sulphonylureas, α-glucosidase inhibitors, metformin, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. We further examined prescription trends by stage of chronic kidney disease. RESULTS: The mean age of patients increased slightly (from 76 to 78 years) over the study period and the percentage with comorbidities declined. Metformin was the predominant therapy prescribed (prescribed to a mean of 56.1% of treated patients). Glyburide (glibenclamide) and thiazolidinedione prescriptions decreased (glyburide prescriptions declined from 45.5 to 9.5%, rosiglitazone from 3.6 to 0.2% and pioglitazone from 1.9 to 1.7%), while gliclazide and DPP-4 inhibitor prescriptions increased (gliclazide prescriptions increased from 0.6 to 26.4%, sitagliptin from 0 to 15.3% and saxagliptin from 0 to 2.0%). Up to 48.6% of patients with stage 3a-5 chronic kidney disease or receiving chronic dialysis were prescribed glyburide, and up to 27.6% of patients with stage 4-5 disease or receiving chronic dialysis were prescribed metformin. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic kidney disease, there were trends towards safer antihyperglycaemic medication prescribing. A considerable number of patients, however, continue to receive medications that should be avoided.