The short heterodimer partner receptor differentially modulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-mediated transcription from the peroxisome proliferator-response elements of the genes encoding the peroxisomal β-oxidation enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase and hydratase-dehydrogenase
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The promoter regions of the genes encoding the first two enzymes of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway, acyl-CoA oxidase (AOx) and enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HD), contain transcriptional regulatory sequences termed peroxisome proliferator-response elements (PPRE) that are bound by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXRalpha) heterodimeric complex. In this study, the role of the short heterodimer partner (SHP) receptor in modulating PPARalpha-mediated gene transcription from the PPREs of the genes encoding AOx and HD was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro binding assays using glutathione-S-transferase-tagged chimeric receptors for PPARalpha and SHP were used to verify the interaction between PPARalpha and SHP. This interaction was unaffected by the presence of the peroxisome proliferator, Wy-14,643. SHP has been proposed to act as a negative regulator of nuclear hormone receptor activity, and SHP inhibited transcription by PPARalpha/RXRalpha heterodimers from the AOx-PPRE. Surprisingly, SHP potentiated transcription by PPARalpha/RXRalpha heterodimers from the HD-PPRE. This is the first demonstration of positive transcriptional activity attributable to SHP. Together, these results suggest that SHP can modulate PPARalpha/RXRalpha-mediated transcription in a response element-specific manner.
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