Defining the sequence specificity of theSaccharomyces cerevisiae DNA binding protein REB1p by selecting binding sites from random-sequence oligonucleotides
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We have used a random selection protocol to define the consensus and range of binding sites for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae REB1 protein. Thirty-five elements were sequenced which bound specifically to a GST-REB1p fusion protein coupled to glutathione-Sepharose under conditions in which more than 99.9% of the random sequences were not retained. Twenty-two of the elements contained the core sequence CGGGTRR, with all but one of the remaining elements containing only one deviation from the core. Of the core sequence, the only residues that were absolutely conserved were the three consecutive G residues. Statistical analysis of a nucleotide-use matrix suggested that the REB1p binding site also extends into flanking sequences with the optimal sequence for REB1p binding being GNGCCGGGGTAACNC. There was a positive correlation between the ability of the sites to bind in vitro and activate transcription in vivo; however, the presence of non-conformants suggests that the binding site may contribute more to transcriptional activation than simply allowing protein binding. Interestingly, one of the REB1p binding elements had a DNAse 1 footprint appreciably longer than other elements with similar affinity. Analysis of its sequence indicated the potential for a second REB1p binding site on the opposite strand. This suggests that two closely positioned low-affinity sites can function together as a highly active site. In addition, database searches with some of the randomly defined REB1p binding sites suggest that related elements are commonly found within 'TATA-less' promoters.
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