Proportions of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Patients with Surgical Site Infections in Mainland China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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BACKGROUND: Sufficient details have not been specified for the epidemiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among surgical site infections (SSIs) in mainland China. This systematic review aimed to estimate proportions of S. aureus and MRSA in SSIs through available published studies. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and four Chinese electronic databases were searched to identify relevant primary studies published between 2007 and 2012. Meta-analysis was conducted on the basis of logit-transformed metric for proportions of S. aureus and MRSA, followed by pre-defined subgroup meta-analysis. Random-effects meta-regression was also conducted to explore the impact of possible factors on S. aureus proportions. RESULTS: 106 studies were included, of which 38 studies involved MRSA. S. aureus accounted for 19.1% (95%CI 17.2-21.0%; I(2) = 84.1%) of all isolates in SSIs, which was roughly parallel to 18.5% in the United States (US) (P-value = 0.57) but significantly exceeded those calculated through the surveillance system in China (P-value<0.001). In subgroup analysis, S. aureus in patients with thoracic surgery (41.1%, 95%CI 26.3-57.7%; I(2) = 74.4%) was more common than in those with gynecologic surgery (20.1%, 95%CI 15.6-25.6%; I(2) = 33.0%) or abdominal surgery (13.8%, 95%CI 10.3-18.4%; I(2) = 70.0%). Similar results were found in meta-regression. MRSA accounted for 41.3% (95%CI 36.5-46.3%; I(2) = 64.6%) of S. aureus, significantly lower than that in the US (P-value = 0.001). MRSA was sensitive to vancomycin (522/522) and linezolid (93/94), while 79.9% (95%CI 67.4-88.4%; I(2) = 0%) and 92.0% (95%CI 80.2-97.0%; I(2) = 0%) of MRSA was resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall proportion of S. aureus among SSIs in China was similar to that in the US but seemed higher than those reported through the Chinese national surveillance system. Proportions of S. aureus SSIs may vary with different surgery types. Commonly seen in SSIs, MRSA tended to be highly sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid but mostly resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin.
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