30-Year Trends in Heart Failure in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction
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Despite significant advances in its treatment, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains an important cause of heart failure (HF). Contemporary data remain lacking, however, describing long-term trends in incidence rates, demographic and clinical profiles, and outcomes of patients who develop HF as a complication of AMI. Our study sample consisted of 11,061 residents of the Worcester (Massachusetts) metropolitan area hospitalized with AMI at all greater Worcester hospitals in 15 annual study periods from 1975 to 2005. Overall, 32.4% of patients (n = 3,582) with AMI developed new-onset HF during their acute hospitalization. Patients who developed HF were generally older, more likely to have pre-existing cardiovascular disease, and were less likely to receive cardiac medications or undergo revascularization procedures during their hospitalization than patients who did not develop HF (p <0.001). Incidence rates of HF remained relatively stable from 1975 to 1991 at 26% but decreased thereafter. Decreases were also noted in hospital and 30-day death rates in patients with acute HF (p <0.001). However, patients who developed new-onset HF remained at significantly higher risk for dying during their hospitalization (21.6%) than patients who did not develop this complication (8.3%, p <0.001). Our large community-based study of patients hospitalized with AMI demonstrates that incidence rates of and mortality attributable to HF have decreased over the previous 3 decades. In conclusion, HF remains a common and frequently fatal complication of AMI to which increased surveillance and treatment efforts should be directed.
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