Mammographic screening: case–control studies
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BACKGROUND: The case-control design can be used to evaluate the benefit of cancer screening programmes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper outlines the main methodological features of the case-control design in this context, and indicates some potential biases. It also reviews the existing case-control literature on mammographic screening. RESULTS: Case-control studies consistently indicate a reduction of approximately 50% in breast cancer mortality associated with mammography. This result indicates greater benefit than shown in randomised trials; however, one should recognise that trials indicate effectiveness whereas case-control studies indicate efficacy. The two types of evidence are broadly compatible when one allows for screening non-compliance and contamination in the randomised trials. CONCLUSIONS: The case-control evidence supports and is consistent with the findings of randomised trials of mammography. Effectiveness estimates from trials indicate the benefit of screening to the population as a whole, and are pertinent to the public policy debate as to the value of offering screening. In contrast, case-control studies indicate benefit to actual screening participants. As such, case-control estimates of efficacy are appropriate for individual decision-making by women about their use of mammography when it is potentially available to them.
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