Sex Differences in Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Elderly Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction Journal Articles uri icon

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  • Background— There are few sex-specific outcome data in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Methods and Results— We assessed sex differences in baseline characteristics and outcomes among 4128 patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in the Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (I-PRESERVE) trial. Women (n=2491) with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction were ≈1 year older (72±7 years versus 71±7 years) and more likely to be obese (46% versus 35%) and have chronic kidney disease (34% versus 26%) and hypertension (91% versus 85%) than men but less likely to have an ischemic cause (19% versus 34%), atrial fibrillation (27% versus 33%), or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (8% versus 13%) (all P <0.001). During a mean of 49.5 months, there were 881 deaths (447 in women, 434 in men; risk ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.56–0.74) and 5776 hospitalizations (3239 in women, 2537 in men; risk ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.76–0.84). Women had lower risk of all-cause events (deaths and hospitalizations), even after adjusting for baseline characteristics (adjusted hazards ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73–0.89). However, the sex-related difference in risk of all-cause events was modified in the presence or absence of atrial fibrillation, renal dysfunction, stable angina pectoris, or advanced New York Heart Association class symptoms. Conclusions— In patients with typical heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, there were prominent sex differences in baseline characteristics and outcomes. Women had better overall prognosis, although the presence of 4 common baseline characteristics seemed to moderate this finding. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: . Unique identifier: NCT000095238.


  • Lam, Carolyn SP
  • Carson, Peter E
  • Anand, Inder S
  • Rector, Thomas S
  • Kuskowski, Michael
  • Komajda, Michel
  • McKelvie, Robert
  • McMurray, John J
  • Zile, Michael R
  • Massie, Barry M
  • Kitzman, Dalane W

publication date

  • September 2012

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