Relationship between heart rate and mortality and morbidity in the irbesartan patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function trial (I-Preserve)
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BACKGROUND: Higher heart rate is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF). Less is known about the association between heart rate and outcomes in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Therefore, we examined the relationship between heart rate and outcomes in the irbesartan in patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function trial (I-Preserve) in patients with an ejection fraction >45% aged >60 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: Heart rate was analysed as both a categorical (tertiles) and continuous variable. Patients in sinus rhythm (n = 3271) and atrial fibrillation (n = 696) were analysed separately. The outcomes examined were the primary endpoint of the trial (all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization), the composite of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization (and its components) and all-cause death alone. Higher heart rate was associated with a significantly higher risk of all outcomes studied for patients in sinus rhythm, even after adjustment for other prognostic variables, including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Each standard deviation (12.4 bpm) increase in heart rate was associated with an increase in risk of 13% for cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization (P = 0.002). No relationship between heart rate and outcomes was observed for patients in atrial fibrillation. Beta-blocker treatment did not reduce the heart rate-risk relationship. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, heart rate is in sinus rhythm an independent predictor of adverse clinical outcomes and might be a therapeutic target in this syndrome. Clinical Trial Registration - URL http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT 0095238.
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