Statin use and survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide after docetaxel failure: the international retrospective observational STABEN study
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Background: Statins may potentiate the effects of anti-hormonal agents for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) through further disruption of essential steroidogenic processes. We investigated the effects of statin use on clinical outcomes in patients with mCRPC receiving abiraterone or enzalutamide. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective multicenter study including patients that received abiraterone or enzalutamide for mCRPC. The effect of concurrent statin use on outcomes was evaluated. The associations of statins with early (≤12 weeks) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) declines (> 30%), cancer-specific survival and overall survival (OS) were evaluated after controlling for known prognostic factors. Results: Five hundred and ninety-eight patients treated with second-line abiraterone or enzalutamide after docetaxel for mCRPC were included. A total of 199 men (33.3%) received statins during abiraterone/enzalutamide treatment. Median OS was 20.8 months (95% CI = 18.3-23.2) for patients who received statins, versus 12.9 months (95% CI = 11.4-14.6) for patients who did not receive statins (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, alkaline phosphatase, PSA, neutrophil-to-lymphocytes ratio, Charlson comorbidity score, Gleason score, visceral disease, hemoglobin, opiate use and abiraterone versus enzalutamide treatment, the use of statin therapy was associated with a 53% reduction in the overall risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.35-0.63; P < 0.001). Statin use was also associated with a 63% increased odds of a > 30% PSA decline within the first 12 weeks of treatment (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.03-2.60; P = 0.039). Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort, statin use was significantly associated with both prolonged OS and cancer-specific survival and increased early > 30% PSA declines. Prospective validation is warranted.
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