A Paper Sensor Printed with Multifunctional Bio/Nano Materials
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We report a paper-based aptasensor platform that uses two reaction zones and a connecting bridge along with printed multifunctional bio/nano materials to achieve molecular recognition and signal amplification. Upon addition of analyte to the first zone, a fluorescently labelled DNA or RNA aptamer is desorbed from printed graphene oxide, rapidly producing an initial fluorescence signal. The released aptamer then flows to the second zone where it reacts with printed reagents to initiate rolling circle amplification, generating DNA amplicons containing a peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme, which produces a colorimetric readout that can be read in an equipment-free manner or with a smartphone. The sensor was demonstrated using an RNA aptamer for adenosine triphosphate (a bacterial marker) and a DNA aptamer for glutamate dehydrogenase (Clostridium difficile marker) with excellent sensitivity and specificity. These targets could be detected in spiked serum or feacal samples, demonstrating the potential for testing clinical samples.
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