Many-Body Generalization of theZ2Topological Invariant for the Quantum Spin Hall Effect
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We propose a many-body generalization of the Z2 topological invariant for the quantum spin Hall insulator, which does not rely on single-particle band structures. The invariant is derived as a topological obstruction that distinguishes topologically distinct many-body ground states on a torus. It is also expressed as a Wilson loop of the SU(2) Berry gauge field, which is quantized due to time-reversal symmetry.
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