Tarnopolsky, M. A., M. Bosman, J. R. MacDonald, D. Vandeputte, J. Martin, and B. D. Roy. Postexercise protein-carbohydrate and carbohydrate supplements increase muscle glycogen in men and women. J. Appl. Physiol. 83(6): 1877–1883, 1997.—We have previously demonstrated that women did not increase intramuscular glycogen in response to an increased percent of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) (from 60 to 75% of energy intake) (M. A. Tarnopolsky, S. A. Atkinson, S. M. Phillips, and J. D. MacDougall. J. Appl. Physiol. 78: 1360–1368, 1995). CHO and CHO-protein (Pro) supplementation postexercise can potentiate glycogen resynthesis compared with placebo (K. M. Zawadzki, B. B. Yaspelkis, and J. L. Ivy. J. Appl. Physiol. 72: 1854–1859, 1992). We studied the effect of isoenergetic CHO and CHO-Pro-Fat supplements on muscle glycogen resynthesis in the first 4 h after endurance exercise (90 min at 65% peak O2 consumption) in trained endurance athletes (men, n= 8; women, tested in midfollicular phase, n = 8). Each subject completed three sequential trials separated by 3 wk; a supplement was provided immediately and 1-h postexercise: 1) CHO (0.75 g/kg) + Pro (0.1 g/kg) + Fat (0.02 g/kg), 2) CHO (1 g/kg), and 3) placebo (Pl; artificial sweetener). Subjects were given prepackaged, isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets, individualized to their habitual diet, for the day before and during the exercise trial. During exercise, women oxidized more lipid than did men ( P< 0.05). Both of the supplement trials resulted in greater postexercise glucose and insulin compared with Pl ( P < 0.01), with no gender differences. Similarly, both of these trials resulted in increased glycogen resynthesis (37.2 vs. 24.6 mmol ⋅ kg dry muscle−1 ⋅ h−1, CHO vs. CHO-Pro-Fat, respectively) compared with Pl (7.5 mmol ⋅ kg dry muscle−1 ⋅ h−1; P < 0.001) with no gender differences. We conclude that postexercise CHO and CHO-Pro-Fat nutritional supplements can increase glycogen resynthesis to a greater extent than Pl for both men and women.