Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the FACE-Q Aging Appraisal Scale and Patient-Perceived Age Visual Analog Scale
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BACKGROUND: The primary outcome measures for patients who undergo aesthetic facial procedures are quality of life and satisfaction with appearance. The FACE-Q, a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument composed of independently functioning scales, is designed to measure a broad range of important outcomes in patients who undergo cosmetic surgical and/or nonsurgical facial procedures. OBJECTIVES: The authors describe the development and psychometric evaluation of the FACE-Q Aging Appraisal Scale and the FACE-Q Patient-Perceived Age Visual Analog Scale (VAS). METHODS: International guidelines for creating PRO instruments were strictly observed throughout development of the FACE-Q scales. Qualitative methods were used to identify the concepts most important to patients who received aesthetic facial procedures. These were turned into "items"-and the resultant FACE-Q Aging Appraisal Scale was field tested, along with the Patient-Perceived Age VAS, in 288 patients who underwent cosmetic surgical and/or nonsurgical facial procedures. RESULTS: Rasch measurement theory and traditional psychometric methods confirmed the reliability and validity of the scales. CONCLUSIONS: The FACE-Q Aging Appraisal Scale and Patient-Perceived Age VAS are psychometrically sound, condition-specific PRO instruments with excellent reliability and validity. They enable accurate outcome assessments in patients who undergo aesthetic facial procedures.
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