Intranasal and Subcutaneous Treatment of Central Precocious Puberty in Both Sexes with a Long-Acting Analog of Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone*
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The chronic administration of the long-acting LHRH agonist analog D-Ser(TBU)6-LHRH-EA10 (HOE 766, Buserelin) suppresses pituitary gonadotropin secretion. Since a similar analog was shown to be effective in the short term parenteral treatment of idiopathic precocious puberty in girls (10), we used Buserelin both intranasally and sc to treat patients of both sexes with idiopathic and secondary central precocious puberty to test its efficacy, safety, and potential for long term use. Six girls and two boys presented with advanced skeletal maturity, accelerated growth velocity, Tanner stage II-IV pubertal development, and pubertal levels of sex steroids and gonadotropins. Patients were treated for 6 months sc and up to 5 months intranasally. Optimal doses ranged from 10-20 micrograms/kg X day in girls and 30 micrograms/kg X day in boys, with marked individual variation. During sc therapy, there was significant suppression of growth velocity (P less than 0.001), serum gonadotropins (P less than 0.001), 17 beta-estradiol (P less than 0.005), and testosterone as well as clinical and behavioral improvement. The rate of bone maturation was reduced. All effects were reversed after discontinuation of therapy for 1 month in one girl. No reduction in efficacy was seen after changing four girls and one boy to intranasal therapy, but improved acceptability and compliance were reported by parents. Apart from withdrawal bleeding in one girl and transient acceleration of puberty in two patients during the initial phase of treatment, no serious unwanted effects occurred. Antibodies to native LHRH were not detected after 6 months of therapy. These results confirm the efficacy and safety of Buserelin by intranasal and sc routes in patients with sexual precocity and indicate a need for long term studies.