The expanding clinical phenotype of Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome: 20 new cases and possible genotype–phenotype correlations
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PURPOSE: Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome (BBSOAS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by optic atrophy and intellectual disability caused by loss-of-function mutations in NR2F1. We report 20 new individuals with BBSOAS, exploring the spectrum of clinical phenotypes and assessing potential genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: Clinical features of individuals with pathogenic NR2F1 variants were evaluated by review of medical records. The functional relevance of coding nonsynonymous NR2F1 variants was assessed with a luciferase assay measuring the impact on transcriptional activity. The effects of two start codon variants on protein expression were evaluated by western blot analysis. RESULTS: We recruited 20 individuals with novel pathogenic NR2F1 variants (seven missense variants, five translation initiation variants, two frameshifting insertions/deletions, one nonframeshifting insertion/deletion, and five whole-gene deletions). All the missense variants were found to impair transcriptional activity. In addition to visual and cognitive deficits, individuals with BBSOAS manifested hypotonia (75%), seizures (40%), autism spectrum disorder (35%), oromotor dysfunction (60%), thinning of the corpus callosum (53%), and hearing defects (20%). CONCLUSION: BBSOAS encompasses a broad range of clinical phenotypes. Functional studies help determine the severity of novel NR2F1 variants. Some genotype-phenotype correlations seem to exist, with missense mutations in the DNA-binding domain causing the most severe phenotypes.Genet Med 18 11, 1143-1150.
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