Problem behaviours and psychotropic medication use in intellectual disability: a multinational cross-sectional survey
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BACKGROUND: Problem behaviours (PBs) are a common cause for clinician contact in people with disorders of intellectual development and may be a common cause for the prescription of psychotropic medication. We aimed to use a large, multinational sample to define the prevalence of PBs, the associations with psychotropic medication use, and to assess for any potential 'diagnostic overshadowing' by the label of PBs in a population of people with disorders of intellectual development. METHOD: A multinational, multi-setting, cross-sectional service evaluation and baseline audit was completed. Data were collected from UK hospitals, UK community settings, Sri Lanka and Hong Kong. A semi-structured questionnaire was completed by treating clinicians, capturing demographic details, prevalence rates of intellectual disability and psychotropic medication use, alongside psychiatric co-morbidity. RESULTS: A sample size of 358 was obtained, with 65% of included participants treated in an inpatient setting. Psychotropic use was prevalent (90%) in our sample, particularly antipsychotics (74%). The prevalence of PB was high (83%). There was no statistically significant association between psychotropic prescription and recorded psychiatric co-morbidity, suggesting prevalent 'off-label' use for PBs, or poor recording of psychiatric co-morbidity. There was some evidence of possible diagnostic overshadowing due to the PB classification. A higher dose of psychotropic medication was associated with aggression toward others (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of prevalent potential 'off-label' use for psychotropic medication, which may be due to PBs. We also found evidence of potential diagnostic-overshadowing, where symptoms of psychiatric co-morbidity may have been attributed to PBs. Our findings provide renewed importance, across borders and health systems, for clinicians to consider a holistic approach to treating PBs, and attempting to best understand the precipitants and predisposing factors before psychotropic prescribing.
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