Multiple gene genealogy reveals high genetic diversity and evidence for multiple origins of Chinese Plasmopara viticola population
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Downy mildew caused by Plasmopara viticola is one of the most devastating diseases of grapevines worldwide. So far, the genetic diversity and origin of the Chinese P. viticola population are unclear. In the present study, 103 P. viticola isolates were sequenced at four gene regions: internal transcribed spacer one (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal RNA (LSU), actin gene (ACT) and beta-tubulin (TUB). The sequences were analyzed to obtain polymorphism and diversity information of the Chinese population as well as to infer the relationships between Chinese and American isolates. High genetic diversity was observed for the Chinese population, with evidence of sub-structuring based on climate. Phylogenetic analysis and haplotype networks showed evidence of close relationships between some American and Chinese isolates, consistent with recent introduction from America to China via planting materials. However, there is also evidence for endemic Chinese P. viticola isolates. Our results suggest that the current Chinese Plasmopara viticola population is an admixture of endemic and introduced isolates.
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