Clinical correlates of hypoglycaemia over 4 years in people with type 2 diabetes starting insulin: An analysis from the CREDIT study
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AIM: To identify factors associated with documented symptomatic and severe hypoglycaemia over 4 years in people with type 2 diabetes starting insulin therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CREDIT, a prospective international observational study, collected data over 4 years on people starting any insulin in 314 centres; 2729 and 2271 people had hypoglycaemia data during the last 6 months of years 1 and 4, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to select the characteristics associated with documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia, and the model was tested against severe hypoglycaemia. RESULTS: The proportions of participants reporting ≥1 non-severe event were 18.5% and 16.6% in years 1 and 4; the corresponding proportions of those achieving a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) were 24.6% and 18.3%, and 16.5% and 16.2% of those who did not. For severe hypoglycaemia, the proportions were 3.0% and 4.6% of people reaching target vs 1.5% and 1.1% of those not reaching target. Multivariable analysis showed that, for documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia at both years 1 and 4, baseline lower body mass index and more physical activity were predictors, and lower HbA1c was an explanatory variable in the respective year. Models for documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia predicted severe hypoglycaemia. Insulin regimen was a univariate explanatory variable, and was not retained in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoglycaemia occurred at significant rates, but was stable over 4 years despite increased insulin doses. The association with insulin regimen and with oral agent use declined over that time. Associated predictors and explanatory variables for documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia conformed to clinical impressions and could be extended to severe hypoglycaemia. Better achieved HbA1c was associated with a higher risk of hypoglycaemia.
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