Myocardial injury after endovascular revascularization in critical limb ischemia predicts 1-year mortality: a prospective observational cohort study
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BACKGROUND: Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) are at increased risk of cardiovascular complications and mortality. To determine (1) incidence of myocardial injury following endovascular revascularization, and (2) relationship between myocardial injury with 1-year mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; i.e., composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death). METHODS AND RESULTS: Single-center, prospective cohort study of CLI patients ≥ 45 years of age, who underwent endovascular revascularization with overnight hospitalization. High-sensitive troponins T (hsTnTs) were measured on admission, 3-6 h after endovascular revascularization and the subsequent morning. Myocardial injury after endovascular revascularization was defined as an hsTnT ≥ 14 ng/L with a relative increase ≥ 30% from the baseline value. We also evaluated other myocardial injury hsTnT thresholds (i.e., ≥ 30, ≥ 40, ≥ 60, and ≥ 80 ng/L). 239 consecutive patients (56% male, mean age 71.5 ± 10.1 years) were included; one patient was lost to follow-up. At 1 year, there were 34 deaths (14.2%), and 48 MACE (20.5%). Myocardial injury with the hsTnT threshold of 14 ng/L and relative increase by ≥ 30% from the baseline level occurred in 61 patients (25.5%). Myocardial injury was independently associated with 1-year mortality ([aHR], 2.44; 95% CI 1.18-5.06, for hsTnT ≥ 14 ng/L to aHR, 3.34; 95% CI 1.29-8.65 for hsTnT ≥ 80 ng/L). Myocardial injury was also independently associated with 1-year MACE ([AOR] 2.89; 95% CI 1.41-5.92 for hsTnT ≥ 14 ng/L to AOR, 6.69; 95% CI 2.17-20.68 for hsTnT ≥ 80 ng/L). 85.2% patients who had myocardial injury did not have ischemic clinical symptoms or electrocardiography changes. In sensitive analysis with exclusion of symptomatic patients that developed myocardial injury for the hsTnT ≥ 14 ng/L threshold, both the 1-year mortality (aHR: 2.19; CI 1.02-4.68; p = 0.04), and 1-year MACE (OR 2.25; CI 1.06-4.77; p = 0.036) remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial injury is common following endovascular revascularization for CLI and associated with the risk of 1-year mortality and MACE.
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