Tetrachloro- and Tetrabromostibonium(V) Cations: Raman and19F,121Sb, and123Sb NMR Spectroscopic Characterization and X-ray Crystal Structures of SbCl4+Sb(OTeF5)6-and SbBr4+Sb(OTeF5)6-
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The stable salts, SbCl(4)(+)Sb(OTeF(5))(6)(-) and SbBr(4)(+)Sb(OTeF(5))(6)(-), have been prepared by oxidation of Sb(OTeF(5))(3) with Cl(2) and Br(2), respectively. The SbBr(4)(+) cation is reported for the first time and is only the second example of a tetrahalostibonium(V) cation. The SbCl(4)(+) cation had been previously characterized as the Sb(2)F(11)(-), Sb(2)Cl(2)F(9)(-), and Sb(2)Cl(0.5)F(10.5)(-) salts. Both Sb(OTeF(5))(6)(-) salts have been characterized in the solid state by low-temperature Raman spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Owing to the weakly coordinating nature of the Sb(OTeF(5))(6)(-) anion, both salts are readily soluble in SO(2)ClF and have been characterized in solution by (121)Sb, (123)Sb, and (19)F NMR spectroscopy. The tetrahedral environments around the Sb atoms of the cations result in low electric field gradients at the quadrupolar (121)Sb and (123)Sb nuclei and correspondingly long relaxation times, allowing the first solution NMR characterization of a tetrahalocation of the heavy pnicogens. The following crystal structures are reported: SbCl(4)(+)Sb(OTeF(5))(6)(-), trigonal system, space group P&thremacr;, a = 10.022(1) Å, c = 18.995(4) Å, V = 1652.3(6) Å(3), D(calc) = 3.652 g cm(-)(3), Z = 2, R(1) = 0.0461; SbBr(4)(+)Sb(OTeF(5))(6)(-), trigonal system, space group P&thremacr;, a = 10.206(1) Å, c = 19.297(3) Å, V = 1740.9(5) Å(3), D(calc) = 3.806 g cm(-)(3), Z = 2, R(1) = 0.0425. The crystal structures of both Sb(OTeF(5))(6)(-) salts are similar and reveal considerably weaker interactions between anion and cation than in previously known SbCl(4)(+) salts. Both cations are undistorted tetrahedra with bond lengths of 2.221(3) Å for SbCl(4)(+) and 2.385(2) Å for SbBr(4)(+). The Raman spectra are consistent with undistorted SbX(4)(+) tetrahedra and have been assigned under T(d)() point symmetry. Trends within groups 15 and 17 are noted among the general valence force constants of the PI(4)(+), AsF(4)(+), AsBr(4)(+), AsI(4)(+), SbCl(4)(+) and SbBr(4)(+) cations, which have been calculated for the first time, and the previously determined force constants for NF(4)(+), NCl(4)(+), PF(4)(+), PCl(4)(+), PBr(4)(+), and AsCl(4)(+), which have been recalculated for the P and As cations in the present study. The SbCl(4)(+) salt is stable in SO(2)ClF solution, whereas the SbBr(4)(+) salt decomposes slowly in SO(2)ClF at room temperature and rapidly in the presence of Br(-) ion and in CH(3)CN solution at low temperatures. The major products of the decompositions are SbBr(2)(+)Sb(OTeF(5))(6)(-), as an adduct with CH(3)CN in CH(3)CN solvent, and Br(2).
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