Syntheses, Vibrational Spectra, and Theoretical Studies of the Adamantanoid Sn4Ch104-(Ch = Se, Te) Anions:  X-ray Crystal Structures of [18-Crown-6-K]4[Sn4Se10]·5en and [18-Crown-6-K]4[Sn4Te10]·3en·2THF Academic Article uri icon

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  • The salts [18-crown-6-K](4)[Sn(4)Se(10)].5en and [18-crown-6-K](4)[Sn(4)Te(10)].3en.2THF were isolated upon addition of THF to the ethylenediamine (en) extracts of the alloys KSn(0.90)Se(1.93) and K(4)Sn(4)Te(10) that had been extracted in the presence of 18-crown-6 (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane). The Sn(4)Te(10)(4-) anion has been structurally characterized for the first time by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of [18-crown-6-K](4)[Sn(4)Te(10)].3en.2THF: P2(1)/n, a = 22.420(5) A, b = 19.570(4) A, c = 24.680(5) A, beta = 96.90(3)(o), Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0468 at -183 degrees C. In addition to Si(4)Te(10)(4-) and Ge(4)Te(10)(4-), the Sn(4)Te(10)(4-) anion represents the only other known group 14 adamantanoid telluride. The X-ray crystal structure determination of the related [18-crown-6-K](4)[Sn(4)Se(10)].5en salt has also been determined: P2(1)/n, a = 22.003(2) A, b = 18.966(2) A, c = 24.393(2) A, beta = 97.548(8)(o), Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0843 at -123 degrees C. The anion geometries are of the adamantanoid type where the Sn(IV) atoms occupy the bridgehead positions and the chalcogen atoms occupy the bridging and terminal sites. The energy minimized geometries of Sn(4)Ch(10)(4-) have also been determined using density functional theory (DFT). Mayer bond order analyses, Mayer valencies, and empirical bond valencies indicate that the terminal Sn-Ch bonds have significant multiple bond character, with the terminal Sn-Se bond having more multiple bond character than the terminal Sn-Te bond. The vibrational frequencies of the Sn(4)Se(10)(4-) and Sn(4)Te(10)(4-) anions have been calculated using DFT methods, allowing the Raman spectrum of Sn(4)Se(10)(4-) to be fully assigned.


  • Pirani, Ayaaz M
  • Mercier, Hélène PA
  • Dixon, David A
  • Borrmann, Horst
  • Schrobilgen, Gary

publication date

  • September 2001