X-ray Crystal Structures of [XeF][MF6] (M = As, Sb, Bi), [XeF][M2F11] (M = Sb, Bi) and Estimated Thermochemical Data and Predicted Stabilities for Noble-Gas Fluorocation Salts using Volume-Based Thermodynamics
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The crystal structures of the xenon(II) salts, [XeF][SbF(6)], [XeF][BiF(6)], and [XeF][Bi(2)F(11)], have been determined for the first time, and those of XeF(2), [XeF][AsF(6)], [XeF][Sb(2)F(11)], and [XeF(3)][Sb(2)F(11)] have been redetermined with greater precision at -173 °C. The Bi(2)F(11)(-) anion, which has a structure analogous to those of the As(2)F(11)(-) and Sb(2)F(11)(-) anions, has been structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction for the first time as its XeF(+) salt. The fluorine bridge between the bismuth atoms is asymmetric with Bi---F(b) bond lengths of 2.092(6) and 2.195(6) A and a Bi---F(b)'---Bi bridge bond angle of 145.3(3)°. The XeF(+) cations interact with their anions by means of Xe---F(b)---M bridges. Consequently, the solid-state Raman spectra of [XeF][MF(6)] (M = As, Sb, Bi) were modeled as the gas-phase ion pairs and assigned with the aid of quantum-chemical calculations. Relationships among the terminal Xe-F(t) and bridge Xe---F(b) bond lengths and stretching frequencies and the gas-phase fluoride ion affinities of the parent Lewis acid that the anion is derived from are considered. The analogous krypton ion pairs, [KrF][MF(6)] (M = As, Sb, Bi) were also calculated and compared with their previously published X-ray crystal structures. The calculated cation-anion charge separations indicate that the [XeF][MF(6)] salts are more ionic than their krypton analogues and that XeF(2) is a stronger fluoride ion donor than KrF(2). The lattice energies, standard enthalpies, and free energies of formation for salts containing the NgF(+), Ng(2)F(3)(+), XeF(3)(+), XeF(5)(+), Xe(2)F(11)(+), and XeOF(3)(+) (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe) cations were estimated using volume-based thermodynamics (VBT) based on crystallographic and estimated ion volumes. These estimated parameters were then used to predict the stabilities of noble-gas salts. VBT is used to examine and predict the stabilities of, inter alia, the salts [XeF(m)][Sb(n)F(5n+1)] and [XeF(m)][As(n)F(5n+1)] (m = 1, 3; n = 1, 2). VBT also confirms that XeF(+) salts are stable toward redox decomposition to Ng, F(2), and MF(5) (M = As, Sb), whereas the isolable krypton compounds and the unknown ArF(+) salts are predicted to be unstable by VBT with the ArF(+) salts being the least stable.
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