Self-Similarity of Plasmon Edge Modes on Koch Fractal Antennas
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We investigate the plasmonic behavior of Koch snowflake fractal geometries and their possible application as broadband optical antennas. Lithographically defined planar silver Koch fractal antennas were fabricated and characterized with high spatial and spectral resolution using electron energy loss spectroscopy. The experimental data are supported by numerical calculations carried out with a surface integral equation method. Multiple surface plasmon edge modes supported by the fractal structures have been imaged and analyzed. Furthermore, by isolating and reproducing self-similar features in long silver strip antennas, the edge modes present in the Koch snowflake fractals are identified. We demonstrate that the fractal response can be obtained by the sum of basic self-similar segments called characteristic edge units. Interestingly, the plasmon edge modes follow a fractal-scaling rule that depends on these self-similar segments formed in the structure after a fractal iteration. As the size of a fractal structure is reduced, coupling of the modes in the characteristic edge units becomes relevant, and the symmetry of the fractal affects the formation of hybrid modes. This analysis can be utilized not only to understand the edge modes in other planar structures but also in the design and fabrication of fractal structures for nanophotonic applications.
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