Incidence of hyperglycemia and diabetes and association with electrolyte abnormalities in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients
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Background: Posttransplant hyperglycemia is an important predictor of new-onset diabetes after transplantation, and both are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Precise estimates of posttransplant hyperglycemia and diabetes in children are unknown. Low magnesium and potassium levels may also lead to diabetes after transplantation, with limited evidence in children. Methods: We conducted a cohort study of 451 pediatric solid organ transplant recipients to determine the incidence of hyperglycemia and diabetes, and the association of cations with both endpoints. Hyperglycemia was defined as random blood glucose levels ≥11.1 mmol/L on two occasions after 14 days of transplant not requiring further treatment. Diabetes was defined using the American Diabetes Association Criteria. For magnesium and potassium, time-fixed, time-varying and rolling average Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to evaluate the association with hyperglycemia and diabetes. Results: Among 451 children, 67 (14.8%) developed hyperglycemia and 27 (6%) progressed to diabetes at a median of 52 days (interquartile range 22-422) from transplant. Multi-organ recipients had a 9-fold [hazard ratio (HR) 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-25.2] and lung recipients had a 4.5-fold (HR 4.5; 95% CI 1.8-11.1) higher risk for hyperglycemia and diabetes, respectively, compared with kidney transplant recipients. Both magnesium and potassium had modest or no association with the development of hyperglycemia and diabetes. Conclusions: Hyperglycemia and diabetes occur in 15 and 6% children, respectively, and develop early posttransplant with lung or multi-organ transplant recipients at the highest risk. Hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia do not confer significantly greater risk for hyperglycemia or diabetes in children.
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