Neuron-glia Interaction as a Possible Pathophysiological Mechanism of Bipolar Disorder
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Accumulating evidence has shown the importance of glial cells in the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. Activated microglia and inflammatory cytokines have been pointed out as potential biomarkers of bipolar disorder. Indeed, recent studies have shown that bipolar disorder involves microglial activation in the hippocampus and alterations in peripheral cytokines, suggesting a potential link between neuroinflammation and peripheral toxicity. These abnormalities may also be the biological underpinnings of outcomes related to neuroprogression, such as cognitive impairment and brain changes. Additionally, astrocytes may have a role in the progression of bipolar disorder, as these cells amplify inflammatory response and maintain glutamate homeostasis, preventing excitotoxicity. The present review aims to discuss neuron-glia interactions and their role in the pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar disorder.
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