The theory and practice of occupational regulation are outlined together with associated issues regarding foreign qualification recognition. Trade-offs between public safety and the monopoly power inherent in occupational regulation are highlighted, together with a description of the increasing scope of occupational regulation both in terms of the numbers of occupations coming under regulation from government and the share of workers subject to those regulations. The focus is on the implications of occupational regulation for highly skilled immigrants seeking employment in the occupation in which they hold a relevant academic credential. For countries outside of the United States, it is striking how little quantitative research has been conducted in this area. A better understanding is crucial, since policies on and approaches to occupational regulation are evolving rapidly, in part because of the increasing scale of skilled migration.