Imaging of stroke: a comparison between X-ray fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging methods
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A dual imaging approach, combining magnetic resonance imaging to localize lesions and synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping to localize and quantify calcium, iron and zinc was used to examine one case of recent stroke with hemorrhage and two cases of ischemia 3 and 7 years before death with the latter showing superficial necrosis. In hemorrhagic lesions, more Fe is found accompanied with less Zn. In chronic ischemic lesions, Fe, Zn and Ca are lower indicating that these elements are removed as the normal tissue dies and scar tissue forms. Both susceptibility and T2* maps were calculated to visualize iron in hemorrhages and validated by XRF Ca and Fe maps. The former was superior for imaging iron in hemorrhagic transformation and necrosis but did not capture ischemic lesions. In contrast, T2* could not differentiate Ca from Fe in necrotic tissue but did capture ischemic lesions, complementing the susceptibility mapping. The spatial localization, accurate quantitative data and elemental differentiation shown here could also be valuable for imaging other brain tissue damage with abnormal Ca and Fe content.
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