Impact of lifestyle interventions on depressive symptoms in individuals at-risk of, or with, type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
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BACKGROUND AND AIM: Depression affects one in four individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The impact of T2DM lifestyle interventions on depression is unclear. The aim of this analysis was to examine the influence of lifestyle interventions on depressive symptoms scores in individuals at-risk of or with T2DM. METHOD AND RESULTS: Major bibliographic databases were searched for studies published in English from 1990 to 2015. Meta-analysis was conducted by random-effects model. Nineteen studies were included in the meta-analyses. A significant reduction in depression scores was shown for lifestyle interventions in the pooled analysis (Standardized Mean Difference (SMD): -0.165; 95%CI: -0.265, -0.064; I(2):67.9%) and when limited to individuals with T2DM (SMD: -0.202; 95%CI: -0.288, -0.079; I(2):72.5%). In subgroup analyses the most effective intervention methods were face-to-face individual consultations (SMD: -0.241; 95%CI: -0.403, -0.078, I(2): 50.8%) with a duration of ≤6 months (SMD: -0.203; 95%CI: -0.381, -0.026, I(2):59.9%). Interventions were most effective when delivered four times a month (SMD: -0.247; 95%CI: -0.441, -0.053, I(2):76.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle interventions were effective in improving depression among people with T2DM.
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