In vivo elemental analysis in occupational medicine.
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The application of in vivo measurement techniques, derived from nuclear and atomic physics, to problems encountered in occupational medicine is discussed. The main techniques, neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence, are described, and their use for in vivo measurements of cadmium and lead is explored in some detail. The extension of these and other, related, techniques to the possible measurement of other elements of importance in occupational medicine is considered. The use of in vivo measurements as a tool for research into the toxicological effects of cadmium, associated with occupational exposure is taken as an example of the way in which in vivo elemental analysis can contribute to research in occupational medicine.
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