In vivo X-ray fluorescence of lead in bone using K X-ray excitation with 109Cd sources: Radiation dosimetry studies
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Independent experiments have been performed at two centers, to evaluate the dosimetric properties of their respective 109Cd K X-ray fluorescence (XRF) bone lead measurement systems. Measurements were made of the dose to several points on the skin on the lower leg, at the surface of the tibia, in the red marrow tibia cavity, at the midcalf, and in the abdominal region occupied by the conceptus. Overall agreement between the two data sets was found. Similarities and differences are discussed. The effective dose values for an in vivo measurement of tibia lead concentration in 1-, 5-, and 10-year-old and adult subjects were calculated from one data set to be 1100, 420, 190, and 34/38 (male/female) nSv, respectively, for an in vivo median precision (one standard deviation) of 4.9 micrograms Pb (g bone mineral)-1 for a 30-min adult measurement.